Kantor Center for the Study of Contemporary European Jewry


Excerpts of the following laws appear in the publication "Legislating for Equality, A Multinational Collection of Non-Discrimination Norms. Vol. II: Americas":

Human Rights Related Legislation


Prohibition of Human Trafficking and Associated Practices Act of 2011.


Penal Code Provisions

Criminal Code of 2007, as Amended up to 2010.


Non- Discrimination


Act Implementing Article 21 of the Constitution, on Discrimination on Grounds of Birth, Race, Class, Sex, Religion and Politics of 1956.

Labour Code of 1971, as Amended up to 2007.

Regulation of the Right to Admission in Public Establishments and Stipulation of Anti-Discrimination Measures Act of 2002.

Act on the Prohibition of Discrimination in Employment and Adoption Other Measures of 2005.


Protection Of Minorities

General Education Act of 1946, as Amended up to 1995.

Act Establishing National Black Ethnicity Day of 2000.

Decree Establishing the Special Committee for Designing Government Policy for the Full Inclusion of Afro-Panamanians of 2005.

Act Recognizing the Languages and Alphabets of the Indigenous People of Panama and Establishing Standards for Intercultural Bilingual Education of 2010.

Act Establishing a Special System for the Protection of Mineral, Water and Environmental Resources in the Ngabe-Bugle Autonomous Area of 2011.


Equality Bodies/ Ombudsman

Act Establishing the Panamanian Office of the Ombudsman of 1997.