Kantor Center for the Study of Contemporary European Jewry

Sweden

The following law excerpts appear in the publication "Legislating for Equality, A Multinational Collection of Non-Discrimination Norms. Vol. I: Europe":

1.  CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS

 

Hereinafter are the relevant provisions in the Constitutional acts of Sweden, as amended up to 2011. [1] 

THE INSTRUMENT OF GOVERNMENT ACT OF 1974

 

CHAPTER 1- BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE FORM OF THE GOVERNMENT 

Article 1

 

"All public power in Sweden proceeds from the people.

 

Swedish democracy is founded on the free formation of opinion and on universal and equal suffrage. It shall be realised through a representative and parliamentary polity and through local self-government.

 

Public power shall be exercised under the law."

 

Article 2

 

"Public power shall be exercised with respect for the equal worth of all and the liberty and dignity of the individual.

 

The personal, economic and cultural welfare of the individual shall be fundamental aims of public activity. In particular, the public institutions shall secure the right to employment, housing and education, and shall promote social care and social security, as well as favourable conditions for good health. 

 

The public institutions shall promote sustainable development leading to a good environment for present and future generations.  

 

The public institutions shall promote the ideals of democracy as guidelines in all sectors of society and protect the private and family lives of the individual.

 

The public institutions shall promote the opportunity for all to attain participation and equality in society and for the rights of the child to be safeguarded. The public institutions shall combat discrimination of persons on grounds of gender, colour, national or ethnic origin, linguistic or religious affiliation, functional disability, sexual orientation, age or other circumstance affecting the individual. 

 

The opportunities of the Sami people and ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities to preserve and develop a cultural and social life of their own shall be promoted."

 

Article 9

 

"Courts of law, administrative authorities and others performing tasks within the public administration shall have regard in their work to the equality of all before the law and shall observe objectivity and impartiality."

 

CHAPTER 2- FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

 

Article 1

 

"Every citizen shall be guaranteed the following rights and freedoms in his relations with the public institutions:

 

1. freedom of expression: that is, the freedom to communicate information and express thoughts, opinions and sentiments, whether orally, pictorially, in writing, or in any other way;

 

2. freedom of information: that is, the freedom to procure and receive information and otherwise acquaint oneself with the utterances of others;

 

3. freedom of assembly: that is, the freedom to organise or attend a meeting for the purposes of information or the expression of opinion or for any other similar purpose, or for the purpose of presenting artistic work;

 

4. freedom to demonstrate: that is, the freedom to organise or take part in a demonstration in a public place;

 

5. freedom of association: that is, the freedom to associate with others for public or private purposes;

 

6. freedom of worship: that is, the freedom to practise one’s religion alone or in the company of others.

 

The provisions of the Freedom of the Press Act and the Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression shall apply concerning the freedom of the press and the corresponding freedom of expression on sound radio, television and certain like transmissions, as well as in films, video recordings, sound recordings and other technical recordings.

 

The Freedom of the Press Act also contains provisions concerning the right of access to official documents."

 

Article 2

 

"No one shall in his or her relations with the public institutions be coerced to divulge an opinion in a political, religious, cultural or other such connection. Nor may anyone in his or her relations with the public institutions be coerced to participate in a meeting for the formation of opinion or a demonstration or other manifestation of opinion, or to belong to a political association, religious community or other association for opinion referred to in sentence one." 

 

Article 3

 

"No record in a public register concerning a Swedish citizen may be based without his or her consent solely on his or her political opinions." 

 

Article 6

 

"Everyone shall be protected in their relations with the public institutions against any physical violation also in cases other than cases under Articles 4 and 5. Everyone shall likewise be protected against body searches, house searches and other such invasions of privacy, against examination of mail or other confidential correspondence, and against eavesdropping and the recording of telephone conversations or other confidential communications.   

 

In addition to what is laid down in paragraph one, everyone shall be protected in their relations with the public institutions against significant invasions of their personal privacy, if these occur without their consent and involve the surveillance or systematic monitoring of the individual’s personal circumstances." 

Article 8

 

"Everyone shall be protected in their relations with the public institutions against deprivations of personal liberty. All Swedish citizens shall also in other respects be guaranteed freedom of movement within the Realm and freedom to depart the Realm." 

Article 12

 

"No act of law or other provision may imply the unfavourable treatment of anyone because they belong to a minority group by reason of ethnic origin, colour, or other similar circumstances or on account of their sexual orientation."

 

 

 

Article 13

 

"No act of law or other provision may imply the unfavourable treatment of anyone on grounds of gender, unless the provision forms part of efforts to promote equality between men and women or relates to compulsory military service or other equivalent official duties."   

 

Article 18

 

"All children covered by compulsory schooling shall be entitled to a free basic education in the public education system. The public institutions shall be responsible also for the provision of higher education. 

 

The freedom of research is protected according to rules laid down in law."

 

 

 

Article 19

 

"No act of law or other provision may be adopted which contravenes Sweden’s undertakings under the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms."

 

Article 21

 

"The limitations referred to in Article 20[2] may be imposed only to satisfy a purpose acceptable in a democratic society. The limitation must never go beyond what is necessary with regard to the purpose which occasioned it, nor may it be carried so far as to constitute a threat to the free formation of opinion as one of the fundaments of democracy. No limitation may be imposed solely on grounds of a political, religious, cultural or other such opinion." 

Article 23

 

"Freedom of expression and freedom of information may be limited with regard to the security of the Realm, the national supply of goods, public order and public safety, the good repute of the individual, the sanctity of private life, and the prevention and prosecution of crime. Freedom of expression may also be limited in business activities. Freedom of expression and freedom of information may otherwise be limited only where particularly important grounds so warrant. 

 

In judging what limitations may be introduced in accordance with paragraph one, particular attention must be paid to the importance of the widest possible freedom of expression and freedom of information in political, religious, professional, scientific and cultural matters.

 

The adoption of provisions which regulate in more detail a particular manner of disseminating or receiving information, without regard to its content, shall not be deemed a limitation of the freedom of expression or the freedom of information." 

Article 24

 

"Freedom of assembly and freedom to demonstrate may be limited in the interests of preserving public order and public safety at a meeting or demonstration, or with regard to the circulation of traffic. These freedoms may otherwise be limited only with regard to the security of the Realm or in order to combat an epidemic. Freedom of association may be limited only in respect of organisations whose activities are of a military or quasi-military nature, or constitute persecution of a population group on grounds of ethnic origin, colour, or other such conditions."

 

CHAPTER 13- PARLIAMENTARY CONTROL 

Article 6

 

"The Riksdag elects one or more Parliamentary Ombudsmen who shall supervise the application of laws and other regulations in the public service, under terms of reference drawn up by the Riksdag. An Ombudsman may institute legal proceedings in the cases indicated in these terms of reference.

 

Courts of law, administrative authorities and State or local government employees shall provide an Ombudsman with such information and opinions as he or she may request. Other persons coming under the supervision of the Ombudsman have a similar obligation. An Ombudsman has the right to access the records and other documents of courts of law and administrative authorities. A public prosecutor shall assist an Ombudsman if so requested. More detailed provisions concerning the Ombudsmen are laid down in the Riksdag Act and elsewhere in law."

 

 

 

CHAPTER 15 - WAR AND DANGER OF WAR

 

 

 

Article 7 -Limitations of rights and freedoms

 

"If the Realm is at war or exposed to the immediate danger of war, the provisions of Chapter 2, Article 22[3], paragraph one, shall not apply. The same is true in any other circumstances in which the War Delegation is acting in place of the Riksdag." 

THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW ON FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION OF 1 JANUARY 1992, AS AMENDED UP TO 2003[4] 

CHAPTER 1- BASIC PROVISIONS 

Article 1

 

"Every Swedish citizen is guaranteed the right under this Fundamental Law, vis-à-vis the public institutions, publicly to express his thoughts, opinions and sentiments, and in general to communicate information on any subject whatsoever on sound radio, television and certain like transmissions, films, video recordings, sound recordings and other technical recordings. The purpose of freedom of expression under this Fundamental Law is to secure the free exchange of opinion, free and comprehensive information, and freedom of artistic creation. No restriction of this freedom shall be permitted other than such as follows from this Fundamental Law […]."  

Article 4

 

"Public authorities and other public bodies may not intervene against any person on grounds that he has abused the freedom of expression or contributed to such abuse in a radio programme or technical recording, except by virtue of this Fundamental Law. Nor may they intervene against the programme or recording on such grounds, except by virtue of this Fundamental Law." 

CHAPTER 3- ON TRANSMISSION, PRODUCTION AND   DISSEMINATION RADIO PROGRAMMES 

 

 

 

Article 1

 

"Every Swedish citizen and every Swedish legal person has the right to transmit radio programmes by landline.

 

The freedom which follows from paragraph one does not preclude the publication in law of provisions concerning 

 

(1-3) […].

 

 4. interventions against continued transmission of a programme range directed towards the portrayal of violence, pornographic pictures or agitation against a population group."

 

THE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS ACT OF 1 JANUARY 1978, AS AMENDED UP TO 1999[5]

 

CHAPTER 1- ON THE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS

 

Article 1

 

"The freedom of the press is understood to mean the right of every Swedish citizen to publish written matter, without prior hindrance by a public authority or other public body, and not to be prosecuted thereafter on grounds of its content other than before a lawful court, or punished therefore other than because the content contravenes an express provision of law, enacted to preserve public order without suppressing information to the public.

 

[…] every Swedish citizen shall be free, subject to the rules contained in this Act for the protection of private rights and public safety, to express his thoughts and opinions in print, to publish official documents and to communicate information and intelligence on any subject whatsoever […]."

 

CHAPTER 7- ON OFFENCES AGAINST THE FREEDOM OF THE PRESS 

Article 4

 

"With due regard to the purpose of freedom of the press for all under Chapter 1, the following acts shall be deemed to be offences against the freedom of the press if committed by means of printed matter and if they are punishable under law:

 

(1-10) […]. 

 

11. agitation against a population group, whereby a person threatens or expresses contempt for a population group or other such group with allusion to race, colour, national or ethnic origin, religious faith or sexual orientation;

 

12. offences against civil liberty, whereby a person makes unlawful threats with intent to influence the formation of public opinion or encroach upon freedom of action within a political organisation or professional or industrial association, thereby imperilling the freedom of expression, freedom of assembly or freedom of association; 

 

any attempt to commit such an offence against civil liberty;

 

(13-14) […].

 

15. insulting language or behaviour, whereby a person insults another by means of offensive invective or allegations or other insulting behaviour towards him;

 

(16-18) […]."

 

 

 

2.  HUMAN RIGHTS RELATED LEGISLATION 

 

 

ACT AGAINST GENOCIDE OF 1964[6]

 

 

 

Article 169

 

"1. conduct of any deed which is liable for imprisonment of four years or more, aimed at a national, ethnic, racial or religious group with the intention of destroying the group totally or partially, is considered genocide, and shall be sentenced for imprisonment for a period of four years to ten years, or for life.

 

2. intent, preparation, conspiracy or omission of discloser of genocide, shall be judged as prescribed in the penal code chapter 23[7]."


3.  PENAL CODE PROVISIONS

 

  

PENAL CODE OF 1 JANUARY 1965, AS AMENDED UP TO 2011[8] 

PART TWO- CRIMES

 

CHAPTER 5 – ON DEFAMATION 

Section 5[9]

 

"Crimes mentioned in Sections 1-3[10] may not be prosecuted by other than the injured party. If, however, the injured party notifies the crime for prosecution, and if for special reasons prosecution is considered necessary in the public interest, a prosecutor may prosecute for:

 

1. defamation and gross defamation,

 

2. insulting behaviour towards a person exercising, or for the exercise of, his or her duties in office,

 

3. insulting behaviour towards a person with allusion to his or her race, colour, national or ethnic origin or religious belief, or

 

4. insulting behaviour towards a person with allusion to his or her homosexual inclination.

 

If defamation is directed against a deceased person, prosecution may be instituted by the surviving spouse, direct heir or heirs, father, mother or siblings and by a prosecutor if prosecution for special reasons is considered to be called for in the public interest.

 

[…]."

 

CHAPTER 16 - CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER

 

Section 8[11]

 

"Any person who, in a disseminated statement or communication, threatens or expresses contempt for a national, ethnic or other such group of persons with allusion to race, colour, national or ethnic origin or religious belief shall, be sentenced for agitation against a national or ethnic group to imprisonment for at most two years or, if the crime is petty, to a fine.

 

If the crime is gross, sentence shall be imprisonment for a period of six months to four years. Aggravating circumstances are an especially intimidating message, demining content and intention to inseminate it in a large scale."

 

Section 9[12]

 

"A businessman who in the conduct of his business discriminates against a person on grounds of that person's race, colour, national or ethnic origin or religious belief by not dealing with that person under the terms and conditions normally applied by the businessman in the course of his business with other persons, shall be sentenced for unlawful discrimination to a fine or imprisonment for at most one year. The provisions of the foregoing paragraph relating to discrimination by a businessman shall also apply to a person employed in a business or otherwise acting on behalf of a businessman and to a person employed in public service or having a public duty.

 

A sentence for unlawful discrimination shall also be imposed on any organiser of a public assembly or gathering, and on any collaborator of such organiser, who discriminates against a person on grounds of his race, colour, national or ethnic origin or religious belief by refusing him access to the public assembly or gathering under the terms and conditions normally applied to other persons.

 

A sentence for unlawful discrimination shall also be imposed on any person designated in the first to third paragraphs above who, in the manner there indicated, discriminates against another on the ground of sexual orientation."

 

CHAPTER 29- SENTENCING AND PENALTY

 

Article 2[13]

 

"As aggravating circumstances in assessing the punishment, there shall, in addition to what applies to each specific offense, special consideration to,      

 

1-6. […]

 

7. an intention to violate a person, an ethnic group or another such group of persons on the grounds of race, skin colour, national or ethnic origin, religious belief, sexual orientation or other similar grounds, or

 

8. […]."

 

 

4.  NON-DISCRIMINATION

 

 

DISCRIMINATION ACT OF 1 JANUARY 2009[14]

 

CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTORY PROVISIONS

 

Section 1- The purpose of the Act

 

"The purpose of this Act is to combat discrimination and in other ways promote equal rights and opportunities regardless of sex, transgender identity or expression, ethnicity, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation or age.

 

The contents of the Act"

 

Section 2

 

"The first chapter of the Act contains definitions and other introductory provisions. The second chapter contains provisions on prohibitions against discrimination and reprisals. The third chapter contains provisions on active measures. The fourth chapter contains provisions on supervision. The fifth chapter contains provisions on compensation and invalidity. The sixth chapter contains provisions on legal proceedings."

 

Section 4- Discrimination

 

"In this Act discrimination has the meaning set out in this Section.

 

1. Direct discrimination: that someone is disadvantaged by being treated less favourably than someone else is treated, has been treated or would have been treated in a comparable situation, if this disadvantaging is associated with sex, transgender identity or expression, ethnicity, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation or age.

 

2. Indirect discrimination: that someone is disadvantaged by the application of a provision, a criterion or a procedure that appears neutral but that may put people of a certain sex, a certain transgender identity or expression, a certain ethnicity, a certain religion or other belief, a certain disability, a certain sexual orientation or a certain age at a particular disadvantage, unless the provision, criterion or procedure has a legitimate purpose and the means that are used are appropriate and necessary to achieve that purpose.

 

3. Harassment: conduct that violates a person’s dignity and that is associated with one of the grounds of discrimination sex, transgender identity or expression, ethnicity, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation or age.

 

4. Sexual harassment: conduct of a sexual nature that violates someone’s dignity.

 

5. Instructions to discriminate: orders or instructions to discriminate against someone in a manner referred to in points 1–4 that are given to someone who is in a subordinate or dependent position relative to the person who gives the orders or instructions or to someone who has committed herself or himself to performing an assignment for that person."

 

 CHAPTER 4

 

Section 1

 

"The Equality Ombudsman is to supervise compliance with this Act. The Ombudsman is to try in the first instance to induce those to whom the Act applies to comply with it voluntarily.

 

Provisions on the duties of the Ombudsman are also contained in the Act concerning the Equality Ombudsman (2008:568)."

 

 

5.  PROTECTION OF MINORITIES

 

 

ACT ON RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES SIGNATURES OF 26 NOVEMBER 1998[15]

 

 

Section 1

 

"Provisions about freedom of religion are contained in the Swedish Instrument of Government and in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms."

 

Section 2

 

"For the purposes of this Act, religious community means a fellowship for religious activities in which the holding of services is included."

 

Section 3

 

"No one is under any obligation to belong to a religious community. Any agreement or promise contrary to this provision is invalid."

 

Section 4

 

"Children who have reached the age of 12 cannot join or leave a religious community without their own consent."

 

Section 5

 

"Registered religious communities refers to:

 

1. the Church of Sweden, and

 

2. religious communities that have been registered in accordance with this Act."

 

 

ACT CONCERNING THE RIGHT TO USE FINNISH AND MEÄNKIELI IN DEALINGS WITH PUBLIC AUTHORITIES AND COURTS OF 9 DECEMBER 1999[16]

 

Section 1- Scope of the Act

 

"This Act governs dealings with local government and state regional and local public authorities operating in a geographical area that wholly or partly coincides with the administrative area for Finnish and Meänkieli.

 

The administrative area for Finnish and Meänkieli (the administrative area) refers to Gällivare, Haparanda, Kiruna, Pajala and Övertorneå municipalities.

 

The Act also applies to dealings with county administrative courts, district courts, lands tribunals, environmental courts or maritime courts with ambits that wholly or partly coincide with the administrative area."

 

Section 2- The right to use Finnish and Meänkieli in dealings with public authorities

 

"A private individual is entitled to use Finnish or Meänkieli in his/her oral and written dealings with a public authority in matters concerning the exercise of public authority in relation to him/her, provided the matter is connected with the administrative area.

 

If the private individual uses Finnish or Meänkieli in such a matter, the authority is obliged to give an oral answer in Finnish or Meänkieli respectively. A decision in writing in a matter of this nature shall contain information in Finnish or Meänkieli that the decision may be orally translated into Finnish or Meänkieli respectively by the authority at the request of the individual. The authority shall strive in other respects, too, to use Finnish or Meänkieli respectively with Finnish or Meänkieli speakers."

 

 

ACT CONCERNING THE RIGHT TO USE THE SAMI LANGUAGE IN DEALINGS WITH PUBLIC AUTHORITIES AND COURTS OF 9 DECEMBER 1999[17]

 

Section 1- Scope of the Act

 

"This Act governs dealings with local government and state regional and local public authorities operating in a geographical area that wholly or partly coincides with the administrative area for Sami.

 

The administrative area for Sami (the administrative area) refers to Arjeplog, Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Kiruna municipalities.

 

The Act also applies to dealings with county administrative courts, district courts, lands tribunals, environmental courts or maritime courts with ambits that wholly or partly coincide with the administrative area."

 

 

Section 2- The right to use the Sami language in dealings with public authorities

 

"A private individual is entitled to use the Sami language in his/her oral and written dealings with a public authority in matters concerning the exercise of public authority in relation to him/her, provided the matter is connected with the administrative area.

 

If the private individual uses the Sami language in such a matter, the authority is obliged to give an oral answer in Sami. A decision in writing in a matter of this nature shall contain information in Sami that the decision may be orally translated into Sami by the authority at the request of the individual. The authority shall strive in other respects, too, to use the Sami language with Sami speakers."

 

 

ACT ON SUPPORT TO RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES OF 1 JANUARY 2000[18]

 

Section 1- Scope

 

"This Act contains provisions on state support to religious communities. Support can be given in the form of government grants and in the form of help from government agencies with the administration of fees to registered religious communities."

 

 

Section 2- Purpose of support

 

"The support should help to create conditions in which religious communities can pursue active and long-term activities of a religious nature in the form of services, pastoral cure, religious instruction and care."

 

Section 3 - Conditions for receiving government grants

 

"Government grants may only be awarded to a religious community that:

 

1. contributes to maintaining and strengthening the fundamental values upon which society is based, and

 

2. is stable and plays an active role in the community."

 

Section 4 - Decisions about government grants

 

"The Government shall decide which religious communities may receive government grants.

 

The Government or an authority authorised by the Government may communicate instructions on the allocation of government grants.

 

If a religious community receives support of the kind referred to in Section 5, this shall be taken into account when government grants are allocated."

 

Section 5 - Help from government agencies with administration of fees to registered religious communities

 

"Provisions on help from government agencies with the setting, debiting and accounting of fees to the Church of Sweden and other registered religious communities and with the collection of fees can be found in the Act on Religious Communities (1998:1593) and the Act on Fees to Registered Religious Communities (1999:291)."

 

 

LAW ON NATIONAL MINORITIES AND MINORITY LANGUAGES OF 2009, AS AMENDED UP TO 2011[19]

 

 

 

Article 1  

 

"This law contains directions regarding national minorities, national minority languages, administrative areas and the right to use minority languages in administrative authorities and courts. […]."

 

Article 2  

 

"National minorities are Jews, Roma, Sami, Swedish Finns and Tornedalians [Finns living on the western,Swedish bank of the Torne River on the Swedish-Finnish border] [...]. In the language law 2009:600) Finnish, Yiddish, Meänkieli, Romani and Sami are designated as the national minority languages."

 

Article 5

 

"Administrative authorities shall give the national minorities the possibility to influence issues that concern them and to whatever extent possible consult with representatives of the minorities in such issues."

 

Article 8  

 

"A private individual has the right to use Finnish, Meänkieli and Sami in oral or written contacts with an administrative authority whose geographical area wholly or partly coincides with the administrative area of that national language. […]. If a private individual uses Finnish, Meänkieli or Sami on such an issue, the authority is obligated to give oral response in the same language."

 

 

Article 10  

 

"Private individuals always have the right to use Finnish and Sami in their written contacts with the ombudsmen of Parliament. The same goes for written communication with the Attorney General, Social Security, Tax Authority and the Discrimination Ombudsman on issues where the private individual is a party or represents a party."

 

 

LANGUAGES LAW OF 2009[20]

 

 

Article 4

 

"Swedish is the main language in Sweden."

 

 

Article 7

 

"The national minority languages are Finnish, Yiddish, Meänkieli [Finnish spoken on the western side of the Torne River Valley on the Swedish-Finnish border], Romani and Sami.

 

Article 8

 

"The authorities have a special responsibility to protect and advance the national minority languages."

 

Article 10

 

"The language in courts, administrative authorities and other organs fulfilling tasks in public service is Swedish.

 

Special directions regarding right to use national minority languages and other Nordic languages are to be found in another law."

 

 

 

Article 14

 

"Each one who lives in Sweden shall be given the opportunity to learn, develop and use Swedish. Beyond that shall whoever belongs to a national minority be given the possibility to learn, develop and use one's minority language."

 

 

6.  EQUALITY BODIES / OMBUDSMAN

 

 

THE ACT WITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PARLIAMENTARY OMBUDSMEN OF 1986[21]

 

Section 1

 

"In accordance with 8.11 of the Riksdag Act, there are four Ombudsmen, a Chief Parliamentary Ombudsman and three Parliamentary Ombudsmen. In addition to this, there may be Deputy Ombudsmen.

 

The Chief Parliamentary Ombudsman and the Parliamentary Ombudsmen are to supervise, to the extent laid down in Article 2, that those who exercise public authority are to obey the laws and other statutes and fulfil their obligations in other respects. Act (1995:404).

 

Section 2

 

"Those supervised by the Ombudsmen are

 

1.         state and municipal authorities,

 

2.        officials and other employees of these authorities,

 

3.        other individuals whose employment or assignment involves the exercise of public authority, insofar as this aspect of such activity is concerned,

 

4.        officials and those employed by public enterprises, while carrying out, on behalf of such an enterprise, activities in which through the agency of the enterprise the Government exercises decisive influence

 

Where officers in the armed forces are concerned, however, this supervision extends only to commissioned officers with the rank of second lieutenant or above, and to those of corresponding rank.

 

The supervision of the Ombudsmen does not extend to

 

1.         Members of the Riksdag,

 

2.        The Riksdag Board of Administration, the Riksdag's Election Review Board, the Riksdag's Complaints Board or the Clerk of the Chamber,

 

3.        Members of the Governing Board of the Riksbank, members of the Executive Board of the Riksbank, except to the extent of their involvement in exercise of the powers of the Riksbank to make decisions in accordance with the Act on the Regulation of Currency and Credit (1992:1602),

 

4.        the Government or Ministers,

 

5.         the Chancellor of Justice, and

 

6.        members of policy-making municipal bodies.

 

An Ombudsman is not subject to the supervision of any other Ombudsman.

 

The term official is used in this act, unless otherwise indicated by the context, to refer to those who are subject to the supervision of the Ombudsmen.

 

Section 3

 

"The Ombudsmen are to ensure in particular that the courts and public authorities in the course of their activities obey the injunction of the Instrument of Government about objectivity and impartiality and that the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens are not encroached upon in public administration.

 

In supervision of municipal authorities the Ombudsmen are to take into consideration the forms taken by municipal self-determination."

 



[2]Article 20: "To the extent provided for in Articles 21 to 24, the following rights and freedoms may be limited in law:

1.           freedom of expression, freedom of information, freedom of assembly, freedom to demonstrate and freedom of association (Article 1, points 1 to 5);

2.           protection against any physical violation in cases other than cases under Articles 4 and 5, against body searches, house searches and other such invasions of privacy, against violations of confidential items of mail or communications and otherwise against violations involving surveillance and monitoring of the individual’s personal circumstances (Article 6);

3.           freedom of movement (Article 8); and

4.           public court proceedings (Article 11, paragraph two, sentence two).

With authority in law, the rights and freedoms referred to in paragraph one may be limited by other statute in cases under Chapter 8, Article 5, and in respect of prohibition of the disclosure of matters which have come to a person’s knowledge in the performance of public or official duties. Freedom of assembly and freedom to demonstrate may similarly be limited also in cases under Article 24, paragraph one, sentence two."

 

[3]  Chapter 2, article 22, para,1:" A draft law under Article 20 shall be held in abeyance, unless rejected by the Riksdag, for a minimum of twelve months from the date on which the first Riksdag committee report on the proposal was submitted to the Chamber, if so moved by at least ten members. The Riksdag may, however, adopt the proposal directly if it has the support of at least five sixths of those voting." For article 20 see footnote 2.

[7]Chapter 23 of the penal code refers to attempt, preparation, conspiracy and participation in criminal activities.

[8] Available at: https://lagen.nu/1962:700 (Swedish).  

[9]Law 2008:569

[10] Sections 1-3 refer to insulting behaviour and defamation.

[11]Law 2002:800

[12] Law 2008:569

[13] Law 2010:370

[14]Available at http://www.sweden.gov.se/content/1/c6/11/59/03/b463d1e1.pdf

This Act supersedes the Equal Opportunities Act (1991:433), the Act on Measures against Discrimination in Working Life on Grounds of Ethnic Origin, Religion or other Belief (1999:130), the Prohibition of Discrimination in Working Life on Grounds of Disability Act (1999:132), the Prohibition of Discrimination in Working Life because of Sexual Orientation Act (1999:133), the Equal Treatment of Students at Universities Act (2001:1286), the Prohibition of Discrimination Act (2003:307), and the Act Prohibiting Discriminatory and Other Degrading Treatment of Children and Pupils (2006:67).

[19] Law 2009:724. Unofficial translation from Original Swedish text, available at http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/20090724.HTM (Swedish).

[20]  Law 2009:600, available at http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/20090600.htm (Swedish).